educação na cidadania

Cidades Educadoras. Espaços de (Contra)Tempos.

logo-Cidades-Educadoras

Pensar a Cidade como espaço que é simultaneamente objecto e sujeito de educação é saber (des)construir, paulatinamente, a liderança e a gestão da coisa pública por estratégias que viabilizam a participação dos cidadãos e das cidadãs. Quanto maior é a acção das Pessoas, se é que lhes é permitido agir (!), nos (Contra)Tempos de uma Visão e Missão comuns, mais inclusiva torna-se a Cidade. Mais predisposta a aprender. E a ensinar.

A cidade diz-se educadora porque ao contemplar uma visão sistémica do seu espaço (que é local como global) enquadra na sua acção e no seu projecto educativo uma intencionalidade e uma funcionalidade práticas necessárias à execução, planificação e desenvolvimento de projectos participados e à consequente inclusão, envolvimento e implicação dos cidadãos e cidadãs em todo o processo.

A cidade que é entendida nesta lógica como um espaço que educa e que pedagogiza, apresenta-se como sistema essencial à renovação crítica do conceito de cidadania, na medida em que esta “se vai privatizando e os jovens são cada vez mais formados para se tornarem sujeitos consumidores e não sujeitos sociais críticos.” (Giroux, 2005, p. 138) Cabe, portanto, não só aos educadores como também aos agentes que fomentam as dinâmicas sociais e culturais da cidade a habilidade para desenvolverem “uma linguagem crítica na qual as noções de bem público, as questões públicas e a vida pública se tornem centrais e prevaleçam sobre a linguagem de mercado despolitizante e privatizante” (Giroux, 2005, p. 138) que hoje apresenta-se-nos como uma visão irrefutável do mundo.

A cidade, que ao acolher os seus cidadãos e ao interpretá-los nas diferentes idiossincrasias que os alicerçam, age como um espaço que aprende a ser interculturalmente competente. Há, por aqui, um trabalho de Sísifo que merece ser percorrido. Há, por aqui, (contra)tempos que merecem ser problematizados, transformados. Há, por aqui, um trabalho colaborativo que, com urgência, a Democracia exorta! Estaremos disponíveis a desvelar este outro olhar sobre a Cidade?

La experiencia de los presupuestos participativos en los entes locales (Juan Calvo Vérgez)

Reseña:

¿Qué son los Presupuestos Participativos? Con carácter general los Presupuestos Participativos constituyen una forma de participación de la ciudadanía en la gestión financiera a través de la elaboración del Presupuesto Público municipal. 
¿Qué finalidad persiguen estos Presupuestos? En líneas generales el Presupuesto Participativo tiene como principal objetivo la participación directa de los vecinos al objeto de poder precisar las principales necesidades cotidianas de un determinado municipio o ciudad de cara a su inclusión dentro de su presupuesto anual, priorizando aquellas que resulten más importantes y realizando un seguimiento de los compromisos alcanzados. De este modo, además de entrar a decidir parte del presupuesto municipal, los Presupuestos Participativos pretenden promover que la ciudadanía no sea simple observadora de los acontecimientos y decisiones, pudiendo convertirse en protagonista activa de lo que ocurre en el municipio de que se trate, en aras de profundizar en el desarrollo de una democracia participativa, y la obtención de unas soluciones que se correspondan con las necesidades y deseos reales existentes en dicho municipio. 
Los Presupuestos Parcipativos constituyen una de las pocas experiencias de democracia directa que ha proporcionado resultados positivos en el ámbito de la Administración Local.

Indice

I. Introducción. 
II. Orígenes y evolución de los presupuestos participativos. 
III. Principios de funcionamiento comunes de la democracia participativa y el presupuesto participativo. La aplicación del mecanismo de la representatividad en los presupuestos participativos. 
IV. La vinculación de la orientación política con la participación en los presupuestos participativos. 
V. La trascendencia de la participación y del asociacionismo dentro de los presupuestos participativos. 
VI. Rasgos configuradores de la implementación de un proceso de presupuesto participativo. 
VII. Argumentos a favor y en contra de los presupuestos participativos. 
VIII. Análisis del ciclo del presupuesto participativo. 
IX. Requisitos iniciales de los presupuestos participativos. 
X. Criterios de capacitación y de coordinación de los distintos sujetos intervinientes en el desarrollo de los presupuestos participativos. 
XI. Análisis de la metodología de los presupuestos participativos. 
XII. Recursos humanos y materiales necesarios para la elaboración de los presupuestos participativos. 
XIII. Principales cuestiones derivadas de la elaboración del autorreglamento. 
XIV. Principales cuestiones derivadas del desarrollo de la fase asamblearia. 
XV. Principales cuestiones conflictivas derivadas de la aplicación del mecanismo de los presupuestos participativos. 
XVI. Análisis específico de determinadas experiencias participativas acometidas en Brasil. 
XVII. Los presupuestos participativos en Europa. 
XVIII. Análisis de las principales experiencias participativas acometidas en los municipios españoles. 
XIX. Reflexiones finales: desafíos a los que han de enfrentarse los presupuestos participativos.

Fonte Imagem: Amazon.co.uk

Fonte Texto: Dykinson

Cities for Citizens: Planning and the Rise of Civil Society in a Global Age (Eds.: Mike Douglass, John Friedmann)

Town Planning Review, Vol.70 No. 2 1999

– “This book is recommended to all those who are seeking to understand how planning, its practices and its ‘thoughtworlds’, might evolve into the next century”

Product Description

In an era of the globalization of finance, production and distribution networks, cities have become increasingly competitive. The business environments preferred by such international investment impact on the lives of citizens, on urban spaces, services, amenities and infrastructure. In the fight for the future of our cities, civil society has now entered the fray. Whether resisting the intrusion of both state and corporate economy into the life of neighbourhoods and communities or working with both government and the private sector in managing urban affairs, civil society lays claim to inclusion in a more democratic politics of planning. This political shift is refashioning planning. Planning is now recognized as more than simply a state regulatory process; it has become a political activity, central to the struggle towards more liveable cities. Cities for Citizens brings together leading names in planning today. The contributors present an international range of case studies – from the USA, Latin America, Europe and Asia–Pacific – which ground the exploration of ideas in the realities and struggles of everyday life.

From the Back Cover

In an era of the globalization of finance, production and distribution networks, cities have become increasingly competitive. The business environments preferred by such international investment impact on the lives of citizens, on urban spaces, services, amenities and infrastructure. In the fight for the future of our cities, civil society has now entered the fray. Whether resisting the intrusion of both state and corporate economy into the life of neighbourhoods and communities or working with both government and the private sector in managing urban affairs, civil society lays claim to inclusion in a more democratic politics of planning. This political shift is refashioning planning. Planning is now recognized as more than simply a state regulatory process; it has become a political activity, central to the struggle towards more liveable cities. Cities for Citizens brings together leading names in planning today. The contributors present an international range of case studies – from the USA, Latin America, Europe and Asia–Pacific – which ground the exploration of ideas in the realities and struggles of everyday life.

About the Author

Mike Douglass is Professor and Chair of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

John Friedmann is Professor Emeritus, UCLA and Adjunct Professor, RMIT, Melbourne.

Fonte: Amazon.co.uk

Inventing Local Democracy: Grassroots Politics in Brazil (Rebecca Neaera Abers)

Synopsis

In 1989, the government of Porto Alegre, Brazil, implemented a paticipatory budget programme. This book tells their story, providing a sociopolitical study of the impact that state-sponsored participatory forums can have on civil society.

Pathways through participation (By Ruth Jackson)

Last week I attended a workshop called Local Engagement in Democracy hosted by Involve.  They had, with the Institute of Volunteering Research and NCVO, recently completed research into how people participate throughout their lives.

The final report of the research was interesting reading and I was quite excited about what the workshop would throw up.

The main findings from the report, for me, were that people participate in different ways and at different levels throughout their lives.  In fact, despite trying very hard, they couldn’t find anyone that hadn’t participated at any level ever.  Even people that thought they didn’t participate, when they thought about it further, had actually participated.  Even if that was going to scouts as a child or donating to charities.

The other thing is that participation is a deeply personal choice, that is largely based initially on a personal connection or realisation.  It’s also voluntary.  So, given that motivation, organisations cannot actively ‘make’ people participate.  They do it of their own free will because it’s something that they feel a connection to.  Organisations can do more, once the connection is created, to help ensure resources, access, information and support are readily available.  But there is little an organisation can do to create that emotional connection for potential participants.  

We often talk about reaching the unengaged, those that don’t participate at the public level, but if we take the learning from this research – beyond providing them with the information, access and resources to participate – there is a real possibility that many of these people will never engage because there’s no emotional connection to the public participation on offer.

And is that a bad thing?  What participation levels are we willing to accept?  There are two issues here, and ones that are frequently brought up by PB practitioners.  These are, on the one hand, public bodies want a fair representation of the community involved in public participation.  This is both to ensure that the concerns, ideas and issues of all sectors of the community are heard and addressed, if possible.  It’s also to ensure that the public body isn’t discriminating or alienating any one group of people.  Plus, having fair representation will help to legitimise any public participation.  And on the other hand there is the real issue of there being groups of people that are significantly more marginalised from society than others, and often they have most need of public support and services.  Thus, in communicating better with them, services are more likely to be aligned to their needs.  

There’s also the perception that participation is a ‘good thing’.  And to an extent, perhaps this is true.   But is it always?  And for whom?  And is it really productive for community engagement professionals, communications experts, neighbourhood managers and other officers and councillors to continue to bang their heads against walls trying to get people to engage that simply don’t want to?  I know, a controversial thought from a PB person.  

I’m not sure I’ve found all the answers on this yet, but this report provides some food for thought and ties in nicely with the international research we were involved in earlier in the year, which looked at who participates in PB processes.  Having now read this report, and discussed a number of these ideas and issues at the workshop, I’m keen to explore how these two pieces of research might be brought together, so we have a better understanding of who is and who isn’t participating in PB and why – and what we can do to enable participation, and what we can’t.  

You can download the report here.  The findings from the international research should be available towards the end of the year.

Reference: PB Unit

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